Other conditions to consider when diagnosing non-IgE-mediated CMA Interactive MAP Guideline

One of the major challenges of recognising non-IgE-mediated CMA is that many of the symptoms are so common in infants who do not have food allergy. Conditions such as reflux and colic often have no specific cause, whilst faltering growth or eczema may be caused by many things other than allergy. It’s easy to misdiagnose CMA, as symptoms can overlap with a number of other conditions. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to ensuring that patients are managed effectively.

A common condition in infancy where stomach contents move from the stomach into the oesophagus. Common symptoms include regurgitation of stomach contents into the throat and mouth, which may also lead to pain and feeding difficulties. Severe cases can lead to faltering growth and reflux airways disease.

Excessive, frequent crying in a baby who appears to be otherwise healthy and well fed. This condition is common yet poorly understood, and affects around 1 in 5 infants.

Itchy, red, dry and cracked skin, which food allergy may contribute to but is more commonly unrelated to diet.

A chronic hypersensitivity reaction to gluten. Symptoms can include diarrhoea, bloating and flatulence, abdominal pain, and faltering growth when there is gluten in the diet.

Infectious intestinal disease that causes diarrhoea and/or vomiting.

The inability to digest lactose, causing diarrhoea, stomach pains and bloating. Usually occurs transiently in infants after gastrointestinal infection. Congenital lactose intolerance is extremely rare.

The inability to digest or absorb certain nutrients from food.